The education sector in Ghana has evolved and developed steadily over the past decades. It is one of the key sectors for Ghana’s development and the Government of Ghana (GoG) through the 1992 Constitution recognizes its responsibility to ensure that every Ghanaian child of school-going age has a right to education to the level and extent possible within the resources of the nation.
In terms of education, Ghana is one of the big players in West Africa, with some achievements like the application of digital e-learning platform technology to improve access to education. Mrs. Theodosia Jackson, a renowned educationist and Principal of Jackson College in Ghana commended the sector for adopting the e-learning to reach out to thousands of students. In the past years, the education start-up WOLO; an e-learning platform providing remote access to Senior High Schools through online seminars, mobile phone applications and television, and in addition, access to a digital library, thereby contributing to the future development of the country.
A great achievement is the successful implementation of the Free Senior High School (SHS) education, a scheme granting free tuition to all attendees of public secondary school which commenced in September 2017. The free SHS policy aims to take out the element of cost as a barrier to education. Under this policy, every Ghanaian child who attains the pass mark, as agreed for the year by Ghana Education Service Council, enjoys a three-year scholarship for secondary education. The World Bank Vice President for Africa, Dr. Hafez Ghanem has commended the Government of Ghana for its revolutionary decision to provide Free Senior High School education to Ghanaian youth.
Ghana’s educational system consists of three main levels according to the educational Act 2008. This consist of a two-year kindergarten, six years of primary school, and three years of junior high school (JHS) making the first cycle. The second-cycle education consist of three years of senior high school (SHS), technical/vocational; business or agriculture training; or an apprenticeship and the third cycle is tertiary education, consisting of Colleges of Education (COEs), polytechnics, universities, and other degree- and diploma-awarding institutions. In summary, the system consists of pre-school, kindergarten and junior high school, together forming the basic education cycle, followed by a 3-year senior high school cycle. A burgeoning tertiary education consisting of training colleges, technical institutes, public and private universities.
The sector is a mix of public and private firms and in the past decades, has established a solid base of schooling for most Ghanaians. Enrolment at private schools in Ghana has also been growing at a rapid rate of 23.2% in 2014 to 29.79% in 2020 according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The goal of the education sector in Ghana is to deliver quality education service at all levels that will equip learners in educational institutions with the skills, competencies, and awareness that will make them functional citizens who can contribute to the attainment of the national goal. This goal is in accordance with the Ghana Education Act 778.